• (April 2015) FDA approves an expanded indication for Botox® (onabotulinumtoxinA) for the treatment of adults with upper limb spasticity, adding two thumb muscles: flexor pollicis longus and adductor pollicis.
  • (June 2015) FDA approves an in vitro assay for establishing the potency and stability of Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA)
  • (July 2015) FDA approves Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA) for the treatment of upper limb spasticity in adult patients to decrease the severity of increased muscle tone in elbow flexors, wrist flexors, and finger flexors.




  • (February 2014) Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Products Agency (UK) approves Botox┬« (onabotulinumtoxinA) for the treatment of ankle disability due to lower limb spasticity associated with stroke in adults.

Leonard Smith
Leonard Smith
Leonard A. Smith, PhD (bio)
Scientific Consultant
Clarksburg, Maryland
Stephen D. Silberstein

Stephen Silberstein

Stephen D. Silberstein, MD (bio)
Professor of Neurology
Director, Jefferson Headache Center
Thomas Jefferson University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


Giampietro Schiavo

Giampietro Schiavo

Giampietro Schiavo, PhD (bio)
Senior Group Leader
Molecular Neuropathobiology Laboratory
Cancer Research UK
London Research Institute
Lincoln's Inn Fields Laboratories
London, United Kingdom
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